In the case of Analogues, your reasoning power, knowledge of related subjects and ability to see relationships is tested. In other words it is purely based on logical reasoning.
In this test two words, phrases, concepts, names of places etc that are related to each other in a specific way are given followed by five pairs of words or phrases. Of these five pairs you are asked to select the one pair that best or more closely expresses a relationship similar to the original pair. The symbols used are those used in ratio and proportion. The sign: means is to or are to and :: means as. This is one of the most challenging and interesting sections in the competitive examinations.
The relationships between the pair of words may be
Here are some examples of like or similar
: USA : : KR Narayanan : India
Both pairs are Presidents of their respective countries
: Maharashtra : : Hyderabad : Andhra Pradesh
Both are Capitals of a State
: Cut :: pen : write
Both are tools for a certain purpose
Here are some examples of dissimilar and opposite relationships
Lamb : ferocity : : Tiger : timidity
Both pairs describe opposite characteristics of the animals
Grief : laughter : : joy : tears
Both pairs describe opposite emotions
Hence in Analogues section you have innumerable combinations based on similarities and dissimilarities, likes and opposites, odds and evens etc.